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3位科学家分享2018年诺贝尔物理学奖

[2018-10-02 23:02:54] 来源: 编辑: 点击量:
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导读:   10月2日电瑞典皇家科学院周二宣布,2018年诺贝尔物理学奖授予激光物理领域的三位科学家。  “激光物理领域的突破性发

   10月2日电瑞典皇家科学院周二宣布,2018年诺贝尔物理学奖授予激光物理领域的三位科学家。

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  “激光物理领域的突破性发明奖”的一半奖项授予美国亚瑟·阿什金,另一半则由法国人杰拉德·穆鲁和加拿大人唐娜·斯特里克兰共同颁发。

  斯特里克兰在新闻发布会上接受该学院的电话采访时表示,她很高兴并且很高兴获得该奖项,她期待在12月份在斯德哥尔摩接受这一奖项。

  在评论她的成就时,她强调了她“试图在盒子外面思考”。

  今年荣获的发明已经彻底改变了激光物理学。现在正在以新的眼光看待极小的物体和令人难以置信的快速过程。根据瑞典皇家科学院发布的声明,先进的精密仪器开辟了未开发的研究领域和众多工业和医疗应用。

  Ashkin发明了光学镊子,用激光束手指抓住粒子,原子,病毒和其他活细胞。这个新工具让Ashkin实现了科幻小说的旧梦 - 利用光的辐射压力来移动物体。根据声明,他成功地获得了激光,将小颗粒推向光束的中心并将它们固定在那里。

  1987年,当Ashkin使用镊子捕获活细菌而不伤害它们时,取得了重大突破。声明补充说,他立即开始研究生物系统,光学镊子现在被广泛用于研究生命机器。

  Mourou和Strickland为人类创造的最短,最强烈的激光脉冲铺平了道路。他们的革命文章于1985年出版,是斯特里克兰博士论文的基础。

  使用巧妙的方法,他们成功地创建了超短,高强度的激光脉冲,而不会破坏放大材料。首先,他们及时拉伸激光脉冲以降低其峰值功率,然后放大它们,最后压缩它们。如果脉冲在时间上被压缩并变得更短,那么更多的光在相同的微小空间中被包装在一起并且脉冲的强度显着增加。

  Strickland和Mourou发明的技术称为啁啾脉冲放大(CPA),很快成为后续高强度激光器的标准配置。其用途包括每年使用最锐利的激光束进行数百万次矫正眼科手术。

  该声明称仍有无数应用领域尚未完全探索。

  “今年的发现是关于制造强脉冲,还有短脉冲。它们非常短,以至于我们可以前所未有地计时。这是目前研究的一个重要领域。许多科学家正试图弄清楚我们该如何做如果你能做到这一点,你可以学到更多关于许多基本过程的知识,例如,化学反应,它们是如何开始的。自从我们了解它们是如何发生的,我们就能够引导它(过程) ),我们可以利用我们的知识来设计将要发生的事情。“ 瑞典皇家科学院物理课程成员Eva Lindroth在公告后接受新华社记者采访时说。

  “我认为Donna Strickland作为一名女科学家今年获得了这个奖项,这真的很不错。知道她的博士论文工作得到这个也很重要,所以这对年轻人来说是一个很好的信号,你可以做点什么在你职业生涯的早期非常重要,“Lindroth强调说。

  “我希望更多的女科学家能够在未来赢得诺贝尔科学奖。越来越多的女科学家,所以我认为(男性主导地位)会发生变化,更多的女科学家正在领导研究小组,发挥更大的作用,这些也是很重要,“Lindroth补充道。

  今年的奖金为900万瑞典克朗(约合100万美元)。

  Half of the award "for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics" went to American Arthur Ashkin and the other half was awarded jointly to Frenchman Gerard Mourou and Canadian Donna Strickland.

  Strickland said in a telephone interview with the academy at a press conference that she was happy and surprised to be receiving the prize, which she looked forward to accepting in Stockholm in December.

  Commenting on her achievements, she emphasized how she "tries to think outside of the box."

  The inventions being honoured this year have revolutionized laser physics. Extremely small objects and incredibly rapid processes are now being seen in a new light. Advanced precision instruments are opening up unexplored areas of research and a multitude of industrial and medical applications, according to a statement released by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

  Ashkin invented optical tweezers that grab particles, atoms, viruses and other living cells with their laser beam fingers. This new tool allowed Ashkin to realize an old dream of science fiction -- using the radiation pressure of light to move physical objects. He succeeded in getting laser light to push small particles towards the center of the beam and to hold them there, according to the statement.

  A major breakthrough came in 1987, when Ashkin used the tweezers to capture living bacteria without harming them. He immediately began studying biological systems, and optical tweezers are now widely used to investigate the machinery of life, the statement added.

  Mourou and Strickland paved the way towards the shortest and most intense laser pulses ever created by mankind. Their revolutionary article was published in 1985 and was the foundation of Strickland's doctoral thesis.

  Using an ingenious approach, they succeeded in creating ultra-short, high-intensity laser pulses without destroying the amplifying material. First they stretched the laser pulses in time to reduce their peak power, then amplified them, and finally compressed them. If a pulse is compressed in time and becomes shorter, then more light is packed together in the same tiny space and the intensity of the pulse increases dramatically.

  Strickland and Mourou's invented technique, called chirped pulse amplification (CPA) soon became standard for subsequent high-intensity lasers. Its uses include the millions of corrective eye surgeries that are conducted every year using the sharpest of laser beams.

  The statement said there are still innumerable areas of application that have not yet been completely explored.

  "This year's discovery is about making strong pulses, but also short pulses. They are so short that we can time them as never before. This is a big area of research at the moment. Many scientists are trying to figure out how can we do this, and if you can do that, you can learn a lot more about many basic processes, of for example, the chemical reactions, how they started. Since we get to know how they happened, we are able to steer it (the process), and we can use our knowledge to design what is going to happen." Eva Lindroth, member of the Class for Physics at The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, told Xinhua in an interview after the announcement.

  "I think it's really nice that Donna Strickland, as a female scientist, got the Prize this year. It's also important to know that she got this for her doctoral thesis work, so it's a good signal to young people, that you can do something very important very early in your career," Lindroth emphasized.

  "I hope more female scientists to win Noble science prizes in future. There are more and more women scientists, so I think it (male dominance) will change, and more female scientists are leading research groups, playing a bigger role, these are also important," Lindroth added.

  This year's prize is 9 million Swedish krona (about 1 million U.S. dollars).

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